A period Apollo 16 Luminary 1E Apollo Guidance Computer MIT manual, Section 4 Operational Modes, dated Dec 1971 with about 500-800 pages of software programming and information. Luminary 1E was the name of the software version used for the Lunar Module on the Apollo 15 and 16 missions, but the date of the manual puts this for Apollo 16. Great overall shape. INV20112016A500
The AGC software together with the Apollo Guidance Computer (AGC) was a revolutionary leap in technology that helped navigate the Apollo astronauts to the moon and back fifty years ago. The MIT instrumentation lab was awarded the first Apollo contract by NASA to design the computer and its software. The MIT engineering team would be basically starting from scratch.
And we’re not talking just about the nuts and bolts...the hardware. Software would need to be “programmed” and the software would be ground breaking. The design work at MIT IL would be one of the earliest foundations for computer programmers–even the term “software engineering” would be coined at the lab during this project. Just like the spacecraft and the computer hardware, the software had to be developed from scratch and evolved as NASA got closer and closer to the manned flights.
On-board flight software for the manned missions was developed for both the Command and Lunar Module computers. In addition to the operating system, the AGC had both an assembly language and a sophisticated software interpreter developed at the MIT lab that could handle more complex ‘pseudo’ instructions than the AGC. These instructions could simplify navigation programs and handle complex navigation equations in the background so as not to overwhelm the AGC power and memory capabilities.
The famous 1201 and 1202 priority alarm displays that interrupted and replaced the astronauts' normal displays with the Priority Displays during the Apollo 11 lunar descent signaled executive overflow was caused because the rendezvous radar was left on during the landing sequence and was stealing precious “cycles” from the AGC. This is in fact exactly what the computer and the software were meant to do– The MIT IL team (led by Margaret Hamilton) had intentionally designed the software with a priority scheduling capability that could identify the most important commands and that allows those to run without interruption pushing less important commands to the side.
The story about the Apollo 11 landing and the Priority Displays was one of error detection and recovery in real time. It was about the astronauts, mission control, the software and the hardware; and how they all worked together during an emergency as an integrated system of systems. It was about creating new, man-machine and software engineering concepts to do things never done before. Unlike a system where the software (or hardware) might "know" of a serious problem without the pilot's knowing it, the Priority Displays were able to determine right away if a particular alarm had occurred that fell within the category of an "emergency alarm" and they let the astronauts know about it too.
No known software errors ever occurred during any of the Apollo missions. The AGC software influenced the design of systems and software for future spacecraft including Skylab, the Space Shuttle and digital fly-by-wire aircraft systems.
Space Collectibles gives you the opportunity to acquire valuable and vintage space collectibles, space artifacts, space memorabilia and space vintage photos from NASA and Soviet space programs.
We have a growing inventory of Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Space Shuttle, Spacelab, International Space Station and soviet artifacts, including items that have flown in space, were used for astronaut training, or otherwise have historic significance.
Space collectibles celebrates the 50th anniversary of NASA’s Apollo Program. This year the commemoration continues with a series of special sales honoring the historic Moon landing of Apollo 11, and on all milestone dates of Apollo Space and Soviet program. Plus, new vintage photos will continuously be added to the Apollo 50th Anniversary. Don’t miss out on these milestone celebrations!
Lunar Meteorites are also great gifts to celebrate the 50th anniversary of NASA’s Apollo Program. A lunar meteorite is a meteorite that is known to have originated on the Moon. Lunar meteorites are rare but enough have been found to make it possible for collectors to now have a piece for a very affordable price.
Free ebook : Apollo 50th Anniversary
As a welcome gift, we offer you this FREE digital ebook
of the Apollo 50th Anniversary
When Apollo 11 landed on the Moon in 1969, it marked a significant milestone in space exploration. Now, for the 50th anniversary of the Moon landing, Astronomy is offering a free ebook that looks back on the historic Apollo program with pieces from the magazine and web archives.
The confirmation page will let you download the ebook
This free download includes:
Space reporter Jay Barbree's chronicle of Neil Armstrong's first steps on the Moon, and Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin's first moments on the lunar surface.
A Q&A with James Lovell, the astronaut who participated in four spaceflights and paved the way for the first Moon landing.
The struggles of black women in the early days of the space program, from the pre-NASA days through the culmination of the Apollo mission.
A small step for the man, but a giant leap for your collection. Space Collectibles presents a unique portfolio of rare photographies from NASA and SOVIET. These extraordinary photos capture the excitement and fascination of space exploration. These images now become part of our collective visual culture for the 20th century.
The most expensive photos ever taken
These are no ordinary snapshots of an amateur, captured with a standard camera box, but the culmination of the concentrated intelligence of many thousands of NASA employees, ingeneers and scientists. Actually, these are the most expensive photographs ever taken.
A rare mix of Scientific and artistical quality
Viewing these footprints is as close to really walking on the Moon or Mars as any of us will ever have the opportunity to do. Nowadays, we treasure these vintage prints for their aesthetic quality and as a lasting visual evidence of an era where the progress seemed so promising...
Space Collectibles online shop for Apollo 11 memorabilia , run one of the most trusted and respected space memorabilia dealers website for the past 10 years. On space collectibles unique space merchandising products and authentic space memorabilia from over 50 years of NASA and Russian space history such as astronaut and cosmonaut autographs, historic hardware and even flown to the moon artifacts from the Apollo 11 program , great Apollo 12 mission are offered with a lifelong authenticity garantuee.
Why should you buy Apollo 50 AnniversarySpace memorabilia,NASA collectibles and space exploration artifacts with Space Collectibles ? Because we’re the trusted online store sought out by the people at the center of the US space race, and the passionate collectors of those space artifacts who want to curate them for future generations. Space Collectibles is honored that the top names in space exploration auction house come to us to source our incredible collections. From the scientists, engineers and insiders of the space race, to the very men and women who have traveled beyond Earth’s atmosphere, our memorabilia offer first hand and incredibly rare collectibles gathered from one of the most exciting periods of modern history, such as Autographs, training-used materials, flown artifacts, and space hardware.
Astronauts flying from earth to the space station is always a fantastic story, as long as watching crew of astronauts flying to the moon. You can also enjoy orbital space flight to mars, launch of the space shuttle or Alan musk and spacex falcon launch. If you like Apollo launch from kennedy space center, or unmaned spaceflight to saturn and jupiter, you will also like Apollo 11 landing on the moon before the soviet. But you know that russian space program won the fist space flight, robotic and human spaceflight exploration with outer space signals from roscosmos, worked on space travel and colonization flight of the first cosmonaut youri gagarin and alexey leonov launch of vostok spacecraft from kazakhstan s baikonur spaceport .
All this came from sputnik and the space race between the ussr and usa, which led to cooperation between space agencies working together. Did you know that rocket were launched from cape canaveral cocoa beach with engineers at mission control during the apollo program ? Own genuine flown in space materials from nasa's most famous spacecraft. Our exclusive Space Collector's Series brings you genuine material which has been flown in space either aboard or as part of a NASA spacecraft, such as the Apollo Command Module, Space Shuttle and more.
Did you know that pilot yuri gagarin was the fist cosmonaut into orbit and that edgar white realized the first american spacewalk , monitored by mission control at johnson space center and houston space center ? Have you seen a countdown to liftoff from Apollo space complex launching pilot and nasa astronaut ? You will get info on commemoration of the 50th anniversary of apollo, which is the ceremony marking the 50th anniversary of the launch of Apollo 11 , celebrating the 50th anniversary of apollo 8 which witness the first earthrise and blue marble , and neil armstrong walk on the moon as commander of the apollo 11. We have photos of apollo XI spacecraft in lunar orbit while neil armstrong and buzz walks on the moon in their astronaut's spacesuit . Smithsonian air space museum also displays robotic mission to mars and phobos , pathfinder mission to mars, apollo astronaut eugene cernan salutes the flag monitored by scientists at nasa s marshall space flight center in huntsville . And Esa european space agency is working with roscosmos space agency to build satellites to lunar and martian surface .
Kennedy space center launch pad at cape canaveral launched missions to explore the lunar surface in the 1960s , orbiting earth or traveling in space, studying and exploring space with european astronauts, watching the apollo xi moon landing by neil armstrong and astronauts during spacewalks outside the iss , honoring russian cosmonauts and astronauts , monitor spacecraft launched from the baikonur cosmodrome in kazakhstan, advancing and sustaining human space exploration, exhibit at the national air and space museum of the smithsonian institution.
Do you remember Buzz Aldrinmagnificent desolation walking on the moon, and that nasa did go to the moon and back seven times, braught back meteorites and lunar dust from the moon and mars, landed the first astronauts on the moon and returning them safely. Do you know the names aff all crew of the apollo moon mission ? When did nasa ended the space shuttle program ? When will Space X send tourists around the moon and back to earth as no one has sent americans back to the moon since apollo or lunar module pilot fred haise ? Have you seen recent flight of nasa's orion capsule and its service moduleor china s jade rabbit moon rover from earth ?
Through this wonderful collectors series you will be able to collect, study and enjoy owning genuine spaceflight history. So why not start your journey in owning genuine space flown material from some of NASA's most iconic spacecraft today?