Venus is the second planet from the Sun. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. As the brightest natural object in Earth's night sky after the Moon. Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition. It is radically different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is about 92 times the sea level pressure of Earth.
The first robotic space probe mission to Venus, and the first to any planet, began with the Soviet Venera program in 1961.Venus was the target of numerous Soviet missions between 1967 and 1984 and for this reason has been described by Russian officials as a "Russian planet".
The United States' exploration of Venus had its first success with the Mariner 2 mission on 14 December 1962, becoming the world's first successful interplanetary mission, passing 34,833 km (21,644 mi) above the surface of Venus, and gathering data on the planet's atmosphere.
On 18 October 1967, the Soviet Venera 4 successfully entered the atmosphere and deployed science experiments. Venera 4 showed the surface temperature was hotter than Mariner 2 had calculated, at almost 500 °C (932 °F), determined that the atmosphere was 95% carbon dioxide (CO2), and discovered that Venus' atmosphere was considerably denser than Venera 4's designers had anticipated.The joint Venera 4–Mariner 5 data were analysed by a combined Soviet–American science team in a series of colloquia over the following year, in an early example of space cooperation.
In 1974, Mariner 10 swung by Venus on its way to Mercury and took ultraviolet photographs of the clouds, revealing the extraordinarily high wind speeds in the Venusian atmosphere.
In 1975, the Soviet Venera 9 and 10 landers transmitted the first images from the surface of Venus, which were in black and white. In 1982 the first colour images of the surface were obtained with the Soviet Venera 13 and 14 landers.
NASA obtained additional data in 1978 with the Pioneer Venus project that consisted of two separate missions: Pioneer Venus Orbiter and Pioneer Venus Multiprobe. The successful Soviet Venera program came to a close in October 1983, when Venera 15 and 16 were placed in orbit to conduct detailed mapping of 25% of Venus' terrain (from the north pole to 30°N latitude)
Several other Venus flybys took place in the 1980s and 1990s that increased the understanding of Venus, including Vega 1 (1985), Vega 2 (1985), Galileo (1990), Magellan (1994), Cassini–Huygens (1998), and MESSENGER (2006). Then, Venus Express by the European Space Agency (ESA) entered orbit around Venus in April 2006. Equipped with seven scientific instruments, Venus Express provided unprecedented long-term observation of Venus' atmosphere.
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Why should you buy Apollo 50 AnniversarySpace memorabilia,NASA collectibles and space exploration artifacts with Space Collectibles ? Because we’re the trusted online store sought out by the people at the center of the US space race, and the passionate collectors of those space artifacts who want to curate them for future generations. Space Collectibles is honored that the top names in space exploration auction house come to us to source our incredible collections. From the scientists, engineers and insiders of the space race, to the very men and women who have traveled beyond Earth’s atmosphere, our memorabilia offer first hand and incredibly rare collectibles gathered from one of the most exciting periods of modern history, such as Autographs, training-used materials, flown artifacts, and space hardware.
Astronauts flying from earth to the space station is always a fantastic story, as long as watching crew of astronauts flying to the moon. You can also enjoy orbital space flight to mars, launch of the space shuttle or Alan musk and spacex falcon launch. If you like Apollo launch from kennedy space center, or unmaned spaceflight to saturn and jupiter, you will also like Apollo 11 landing on the moon before the soviet. But you know that russian space program won the fist space flight, robotic and human spaceflight exploration with outer space signals from roscosmos, worked on space travel and colonization flight of the first cosmonaut youri gagarin and alexey leonov launch of vostok spacecraft from kazakhstan s baikonur spaceport .
All this came from sputnik and the space race between the ussr and usa, which led to cooperation between space agencies working together. Did you know that rocket were launched from cape canaveral cocoa beach with engineers at mission control during the apollo program ? Own genuine flown in space materials from nasa's most famous spacecraft. Our exclusive Space Collector's Series brings you genuine material which has been flown in space either aboard or as part of a NASA spacecraft, such as the Apollo Command Module, Space Shuttle and more.
Did you know that pilot yuri gagarin was the fist cosmonaut into orbit and that edgar white realized the first american spacewalk , monitored by mission control at johnson space center and houston space center ? Have you seen a countdown to liftoff from Apollo space complex launching pilot and nasa astronaut ? You will get info on commemoration of the 50th anniversary of apollo, which is the ceremony marking the 50th anniversary of the launch of Apollo 11 , celebrating the 50th anniversary of apollo 8 which witness the first earthrise and blue marble , and neil armstrong walk on the moon as commander of the apollo 11. We have photos of apollo XI spacecraft in lunar orbit while neil armstrong and buzz walks on the moon in their astronaut's spacesuit . Smithsonian air space museum also displays robotic mission to mars and phobos , pathfinder mission to mars, apollo astronaut eugene cernan salutes the flag monitored by scientists at nasa s marshall space flight center in huntsville . And Esa european space agency is working with roscosmos space agency to build satellites to lunar and martian surface .
Kennedy space center launch pad at cape canaveral launched missions to explore the lunar surface in the 1960s , orbiting earth or traveling in space, studying and exploring space with european astronauts, watching the apollo xi moon landing by neil armstrong and astronauts during spacewalks outside the iss , honoring russian cosmonauts and astronauts , monitor spacecraft launched from the baikonur cosmodrome in kazakhstan, advancing and sustaining human space exploration, exhibit at the national air and space museum of the smithsonian institution.
Do you remember Buzz Aldrinmagnificent desolation walking on the moon, and that nasa did go to the moon and back seven times, braught back meteorites and lunar dust from the moon and mars, landed the first astronauts on the moon and returning them safely. Do you know the names aff all crew of the apollo moon mission ? When did nasa ended the space shuttle program ? When will Space X send tourists around the moon and back to earth as no one has sent americans back to the moon since apollo or lunar module pilot fred haise ? Have you seen recent flight of nasa's orion capsule and its service moduleor china s jade rabbit moon rover from earth ?
Through this wonderful collectors series you will be able to collect, study and enjoy owning genuine spaceflight history. So why not start your journey in owning genuine space flown material from some of NASA's most iconic spacecraft today?